Radio Frequency Communication-Electronics Course (RFCEC)

Course Updated: 03/11/2016

This cover page is designed to be viewed with a monitor screen resolution set for 1680 x 1050

The course "Table of Contents" link is at the bottom of this cover page introduction.



Course Introduction:

This Course consists of '4' Sections containing '66' Chapters which have a total of '1894' Lessons: 

  1. Section-1 has '10' Chapters with '222' Lessons
  2. Section-2 has '15' Chapters with '873' Lessons
  3. Section-3 has '34' Chapters with '457' Lessons
  4. Section-4 has '07' Chapters with '342' Lessons

In Section-1 and Section-2 each Chapter contains multiple Lesson Plans with the same subject title that are numerically listed in progressive order (i.e.; 001 ~ 099 etc.). Each Lesson Plan is a complete topic in itself and leads into the next numerically listed Lesson Plan. Anyone choosing to read any specific Lesson Plan, will garner knowledge concerning the subject matter, however it is suggested that you do not read identically titled and numerically listed Lesson Plan Subjects in a 'cherry picking' style, because you will not gain the knowledge in an appropriate order.

One discrete topic concept is examined per lesson, and each lesson carries an illustration that graphically depicts the topic being covered. Individual lessons are taught in incremental steps and each lesson topic treatment prepares the student for the next topic. As a result of this treatment, neither the text nor the illustrations are relied on solely as a teaching medium for any given topic. Both are for every topic, so that the illustrations not only complement but reinforce the text. In addition, to further aid the student in retaining what they have learned, the important points are summarized in text form on the illustration. This unique simplification of an ordinarily complex subject, the exceptional clarity of illustrations and text, and the plan of presenting one basic topic concept at a time, without involving complicated mathematics, all combine in making this course a better and quicker way to teach and learn Fundamentals of Electricity, Fundamentals of Electronics and Fundamentals of Radio Frequency (RF) Communication-Electronics. This unique treatment allows the course to be used as a convenient review text. 'Color' is not used for decorative purposes, but to accent important points and make the illustrations meaningful.

In keeping with good teaching practice, all technical terms are defined at their point of introduction so that the student can proceed with confidence. Key words for each topic are made conspicuous by the use of 'italics'. Major points covered in prior lessons are often reiterated in later topics for purposes of retention. This allows not only the smooth transition from lesson to lesson, but the reinforcement of prior knowledge just before the declining point of one's memory curve.

In Section-3 and Section-4 there are some Chapters that contain many Lessons that are complete books in themselves.

All the Lesson Plans are posted in either Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) or Image (.jpg) file extension formats for easy viewing on-line or downloading to your personal computer and are provided as a 'one-stop-shop' location to find them. Files with (.jpg) file extension format should open with any Microsoft Operating System Program and files with (.pdf) file extension format require either the 'Full' Adobe Acrobat Program or the "Free" Adobe Acrobat Reader Program which can be downloaded at the URL listed here: http://get.adobe.com/reader/.

I do not offer a way to download the entire course as "One File", because I am periodically editing, updating and adding lessons, which would make any previous download outdated. Check back often and look at the date of update on this introduction page.


Course Structure:

Preface: Creator Welcome Letter, Creator Biography and Creator Experience

Section-1: Fundamentals of Electricity [Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC)]

Section-2: Fundamentals of Electronics [Analog (A) and Digital (D)]

Section-3: Fundamentals of Radio Frequency Communication-Electronics [Radiotelegraphy (RTGY) and Radiotelephony (RTPY)]

Section-4: Fundamentals of Ground Radio Maintenance [Test Measurement Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE), Reading Schematics, Troubleshooting, and Soldering]


Course Development:

I am a United States Marine, mandatorily retired from United States Marine Corps Active Duty Military Service. (In accordance with Public Law and Department of Defense Regulations, Mandatory retirement from Active Duty Military Service is legislated at 30 years). I completed a total of '30 years' Service, consisting of '22 years' Active Duty (June 30, 1969 to June 30, 1991) and '8 years' Reserve Duty (July 01, 1991 to July 01, 1999).

During a portion of my Active Duty Service, I was an Instructor at the Marine Corps Communication-Electronics Schools (MCCES). As a MCCES instructor, I taught United States Marines, Parts-1, 2, 3 and 4B (listed below), of the Marine Corps Communication-Electronics Maintenance Course (MCCEMC). (Symbol @ indicates which parts of the MCCEMC I taught.)

The Marine Corps Communication-Electronics Maintenance Course (MCCEMC) consisted of the following curriculum:

Part-1. Fundamentals of Electricity [Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC)]. @

Part-2. Fundamentals of Electronics [Analog (A) and Digital (D)]. @

Part-3. Fundamentals of Radio Frequency Communication-Electronics [Radiotelegraphy (RTGY) and Radiotelephony (RTPY)]. @

Part-4A. Fundamentals of Air Radio Maintenance (ARM): MOS - 2851 Air Radio Technician.

Part-4B. Fundamentals of Ground Radio Maintenance (GRM): MOS - 2841 Ground Radio Technician. @

Part-4C. Fundamentals of Microwave Radio Maintenance (MRM): MOS - 2831 Microwave Radio Technician.

Note: All Students were taught Parts-1, 2 and 3, but were only taught one of the three Sections of Part-4, depending on which Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) number they were assigned.

During my duty as an instructor, I concluded that the curriculum I taught could be modified and developed into a course of instruction for use as an aid to Mentor individuals interested in obtaining a Federal Communication Commission (FCC), Amateur Radio Service (ARS), Primary Station License Grant (PSLG) and Amateur Operator License Grant (AOLG). I created my RFCEC by modifying parts of the MCCEMC curriculum.

My goal for creating my RFCEC was to help individuals learn new skills and/or improve skills they may already possess’.

I formally taught the MCCEMC for 4 years (1979 ~ 1983) and afterwards my created RFCEC for 29 years (1983 ~ 2012) for a grand total of 33 years teaching. RFCEC students included individuals of the General Public interested in obtaining an FCC ARS PSLG and AOLG and individuals who already held an FCC ARS PSLG and AOLG, interested in improving their knowledge level or upgrading their existing AOLG Class.

Since initial creation and over the years of teaching my RFCEC, I continued to improve the course by adding additional materials from various different sources. The different materials used to improve the RFCEC were curriculum from my Civilian College Course Lesson Plans and Notes, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documentation, U.S. Department of the Navy (DON) Marine Corps Institute (MCI) Courses, U.S. Department of the Navy (DON) Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS) Courses, and documentation written by other Authors. The documents written by other authors, were either obtained from the individual authors directly, or from the public domain. The RFCEC Lesson Plans consist of 79% mine, and 21% from other authors.

I no longer formally teach my RFCEC, but offer it "FREE" as an "Independent - Self-Study Distance Learning Course". The RFCEC is not affiliated with nor sponsored by, the American Radio Relay League (ARRL), any Amateur Radio Association, Amateur Radio Club, Amateur Radio Society, or College/University.


Course Creator Information:

Larry E. Gugle

Email: K4RFE@rfcec.com

MBABM, MSEE, BSEE, BSET, AASEET

2009 - Age 62 (Motorola: RF Communication-Electronics; Senior Principal Engineer)

                                                Department of the Navy (DON), Unites States Marine Corps (USMC), Official Seal                                          

                                                                                1970 - Age 23 [USMC: Marine Corps Communication-Electronics Schools (MCCES),

                                                              Student; Radio Relay Repair Course (RRRC), I am standing in the second Row, first on the viewers left]

1979 - Age 32 (USMC: RF Communication-Electronics; Maintenance Chief & Operations Chief)  

 

USMC MCCES Logo

                                                                                                                                                                                          

                                                                                                   1981 - Age 34 (USMC: MCCES Instructor)   

 

                                                                                                   Radio Set AN/TRC-27A                                                                                            Radio Set AN/TRC-97       



Electric and Electronic Fundamentals:

                                                                                                                                   Georg Simon Ohm's                                     

                                                  Atomic Structure                                      and James Prescott Joule's Laws                              Gustav Robert Kirchhoff's Law

                     

Physics Axioms:

  1. Matter is defined as anything that occupies space and has weight. It may be found in any one of 'three states': Gas, Liquid and Solid.
  2. Elements are the basic materials that make up all matter and they can be combined to produce Compounds.
  3. The Molecule is the smallest particle that a Compound can be reduced to before it breaks down into its Elements.
  4. The Atom is the smallest particle that an Element can be reduced to and still keep the properties of that Element. It contains three types of subatomic particles that are of interest in electricity: Electrons, Neutrons and Protons.
  5. Electricity is produced when Electrons are freed from their atoms.

Direct Current (DC) Circuits:

  1. The circuit Current (I) is directly proportional to the Voltage (E) an inversely proportional to the Resistance (R). Total circuit Resistance (R) is determined by the value of the individual Resistors contained within the circuit. When '1' volt (E) of Electromotive Force (EMF), forces '1' ampere of current (I) through '1' ohm of resistance (R) '1' watt of power (P) is dissipated. [Georg Simon Ohm's Law]
  2. Electrical Power (P) is measured in Watts (W), and is the Current (I) times the Voltage (E). [James Prescott Joule's Law]
  3. The algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero. [Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)]
  4. The algebraic sum of all currents entering and exiting a node must equal zero. [Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)]

Alternating Current (AC) Circuits:

  1. The circuit Current (I) is directly proportional to the Voltage (E) an inversely proportional to the Impedance (Z).
  2. Total circuit Impedance (Z) is determined by the Frequency (F) in Cycles per Second (CPS) of the Alternating Current (AC) and the values of any 'individual' or 'combination' of the following contained within the circuit;
    1. Resistors will cause an impedance to the circuit current flow from their Resistance (R).
    2. Inductors will cause an impedance to the circuit current flow from their Inductive Reactance (XL).
    3. Capacitors will cause an impedance to the circuit current flow from their Capacitive Reactance (Xc).
  3. Examples of Impedance (Z) are: (Z = F + R) or (Z = F + XL) or (Z = F + Xc) or (Z = F + R + XL) or (Z = F + R + Xc) or (Z = F + XL + Xc) or (Z = F + R + XL + Xc).

Alternating Current (AC) Circuits, Relationships of Voltage (E) and Current (I):

  1. In a Purely Resistive (R) Circuit, the Voltage (E) is "In phase" with the Current (I).
  2. In a Purely Inductive (L) Circuit, the Voltage (E) "Leads" the Current (I) by 90 degrees.
  3. In a Purely Capacitive (C) Circuit, the Current (I) "Leads" the Voltage (E) by 90 degrees.
  4. A Simple way to remember the Phase Angle relationships is by the phrase "ELI the ICE man".
  5. In the word "ELI", the letter (E) for Voltage, comes before or "Leads" the letter (I) for Current, and the letter (L) means Inductive circuit.
  6. In the word "ICE", the letter (I) for Current, comes before or "Leads" the letter (E) for Voltage, and the letter (C) means Capacitive circuit.


Electric and Electronic Components:

                                                                                                                                Electronic - Active Device Components                                             Electronic - Active Device Components  

                                                                                                                                                     Electron Tubes:                                                                          Solid State Semiconductors:

        Electric and Electronic - Passive Device Components                     Made in a Glass or Ceramic/Metal Vacuum                                               Made from Germanium or Silicon

                CAPACITOR (C)       INDUCTOR (L)          RESISTOR (R)                  DIODE                      TRIODE                   TETRODE                  PENTODE                  DIODE                           BJT                         JFET                       MOSFET          

Abbreviation Legend: ET = Electron Tube,  BJT = Bipolar Junction Transistor, JFET = Junction Field Effect Transistor, MOSFET = Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor [Originally called a (IGFET) = Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor]

Low-Pass, High-Pass, Band-Pass and Band-Reject, Constant - 'K' and 'M' - Derived, 'T', and 'Pi' Filter Network Diagrams



'Three'

Sample Lesson Plans

from Section-3 Provided Below:


Sample Lesson # 1


Examples of an Amateur Radio Service,

Radio Frequency Communication-Electronics Fixed Station,

properly setup to operate

Radiotelegraphy and Radiotelephony Modes:

[MF (160 Meters), HF (80 – 10 Meters) and VHF (6 Meters)]

Figure-1; illustrates an ‘Example’ Amateur Radio Service, Radio Frequency Communication-Electronics Fixed Station, properly setup to operate Radiotelegraphy or Radiotelephony modes, and the necessary interconnecting Coaxial Cable RF Feedlines used with 'One Transceiver, One Manual Tune RF Power Amplifier, One RF Power / VSWR Meter, One Manual Tune Tuner, and Two Loads (1-Active Load and 1-Dummy Load)'. The coaxial cable switch is used so that the desired Load may be selected.

Figure-1


Figure-2; illustrates an ‘Example’ Amateur Radio Service, Radio Frequency Communication-Electronics Fixed Station, properly setup to operate Radiotelegraphy or Radiotelephony modes, and the necessary interconnecting Coaxial Cable RF Feedlines used with 'One Transceiver, One Automatic Tune RF Power Amplifier, One RF Power / VSWR Meter, One Automatic Tune Tuner, and Two Loads (1-Active Load and 1-Dummy Load)'. The coaxial cable switch is used so that the desired Load may be selected.

Figure-2


Figure-3; illustrates an ‘Example’ Amateur Radio Service, Radio Frequency Communication-Electronics Fixed Station, properly setup to operate Radiotelegraphy or Radiotelephony modes, and the necessary interconnecting Coaxial Cable RF Feedlines used with 'Two Transceivers, Two RF Power Amplifiers (One Manual Tune and One Automatic Tune), One RF Power / VSWR Meter, Two Tuners (One Manual Tune and One Automatic Tune), and Two Loads (1-Active Load and 1-Dummy Load)'. The coaxial cable switches are used to select the desired equipment and the desired Load.

Figure-3

In Figure 3, above any one of following combinations may be used with either Transceiver:

a. Manual Tune RF Power Amplifier and Manual Tune Tuner.

b. Manual Tune RF Power Amplifier and Automatic Tune Tuner.

c. Automatic Tune RF Power Amplifier and Automatic Tune Tuner.

d. Automatic Tune RF Power Amplifier and Manual Tune Tuner.


Notes for Figures 1, 2 and 3:


Sample Lesson # 2


 

Code of Federal Regulations,

Title 47 - Telecommunications,

Section 1 - Federal Communications Commission,

Part 97 - Amateur Radio Service,

Subpart A - General Provisions,

Section 97.1 - Basis and Purpose.

 

   The rules and regulations in this part are designed to provide an amateur radio service having a fundamental purpose as expressed in the following principles:

a. Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service to the public as a voluntary noncommercial communication service, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications.

 

b. Continuation and extension of the amateur’s proven ability to contribute to the advancement of the radio art.

 

c. Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the communications and technical phases of the art.

 

d. Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur radio service of trained operators, technicians, and electronics experts.

 

e. Continuation and extension of the amateur's unique ability to enhance international goodwill.


Sample Lesson # 3


Amateur Radio Service, Station Operation Procedures

Recommended - Do's

1.  Develop good operating practices. Set an example for other operators and you will be doing your part in helping insure the continuance of our long and proud tradition of self-regulation.

  1. Aspire to comply with all the applicable Federal Communication Commission (FCC), Title 47, Section 1, Rules and Regulations contained in Part 2 (Frequency Allocations and Treaty Matters; General Rules and Regulations) and Part 97 (Amateur Radio Service). A good operating guide to follow is “The Amateur Radio Service Operator’s Code” written in 1928 by W9EEA Paul M. Segal.
  2. If you are a repeater user, here is a URL of a professional sounding radio announcer (Mr. Bill Hamilton) giving a narration of good repeater operating practices/procedures. Information courtesy of W8RXX John Perone.

http://www.repeater-builder.com/repeaterisms/repeaterisms.html

2.  Set a good example of on-the-air operations for other Amateur Radio Service Operators and especially for Short Wave Listeners (SWL) who may be thinking about becoming an Amateur Radio Service Operator.

3.  Try to keep track of everyone involved in the Conversation on Telephony (AM/FM/SSB) or Telegraphy (CW). When involved in a ‘round-table’ style Conversation on Telephony (AM/FM/SSB) or Telegraphy (CW), make it clear at the end of each transmission which station is expected to transmit next.

  1. Hopefully someone has assumed the role of "traffic director" to make sure everyone has a chance to contribute to the discussion. If not, don't hesitate to do it yourself.

5.  Always be polite regardless of the circumstances.

  1. If not, avoid transmitting.

6.  Look for opportunities to "Mentor" newly licensed or license class upgraded Amateur Radio Service Operators when you hear them on the radio frequency bands.

  1. Welcome them, solicit their questions and give them pointers on good operating practices.

7.  Be a good listener.

  1. It will help you better organize your thoughts before transmitting.

8.  Reply to a CQ call, or call CQ yourself.

  1. It helps keep alive the magic of Amateur Radio.

9.  Make a conscious effort to identify your Primary Station Call Sign at the end of your transmission or at every 10 minute interval throughout a conversation, which ever comes first.

10. Speak clearly and slowly, especially when giving your call sign to someone you have never worked before.

  1. For clarity use the International Phonetic Alphabet to spell out your call sign when making a contact for the first time with a new station.

Amateur Radio Service, Station Operation Procedures

Recommended - Don'ts

1. Don't transmit on any frequency, before first determining that the frequency you want to use is clear, as well as the adjacent frequencies plus and minus (+/-) the Band Width (BW) of the emission mode you are going to use.

a.      Example of appropriate procedures:

                                                  i.      If you want to use the frequency of 7.128 MHz for Single Side Band Suppressed Carrier - Amplitude Modulation (SSBSC-AM) operations (emission designator 2K70/J3E), vary your VFO up to the frequency of 7.131 MHz (+3 KHz) and down to the frequency of 7.125 MHz (-3 KHz) to see whether those frequencies are in use by other operators in a conversation.

                                                ii.      Then before transmitting on 7.128 MHz, listen for a short time to see whether it is being used or not. If it seams to be clear, ensure that it is, by transmitting the question “Is this frequency in use, is 7.128 MHz in use, this is (Your Station Call Sign)”? Ask this question at least twice before calling a specific station or calling a CQ.

                                              iii.      This procedure must be followed so that your Single Side Band Transmissions, 3rd Order IMD Band Width on 7.128 MHz, does not interfere with other conversations on adjacent frequencies above and below. If there are operators within +/- 3 KHz, your 3rd Order IMD will be within their Receiver's Band Pass Filter (BPF) Pass Band (PB).

              b.  Never assume a frequency is clear even if nobody is transmitting at the time you have been listening. There may be operators that are using the frequency standing by, awaiting the return of another operator who has stepped away for a short time to get a refreshment, use the toilet, answer a telephone call, or answer a question from a family member.          

2. Do not transmit closer to a 'Band Edge', 'Emission Mode - Band Segment Edge', 'Operator Class - Band Segment Edge' or 'Another Ongoing Conversation" than:

  1. ‘100 Hz’ using Emission Designator ‘100HA1A' [‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ keying Carrier Wave (CW) Telegraphy]

  2. ‘3 KHz’ using Emission Designator ‘2K70J3E’ [Single Side Band Suppressed Carrier - Amplitude Modulation (SSBSC-AM) Telephony]

  3. '6 KHz’ using Emission Designator ‘6K00A3E’ [Double Side Band Full Carrier - Amplitude Modulation (DSBFC-AM) Telephony]

  4. ‘16 KHz’ using Emission Designator ‘16K0F3E’ [Frequency Modulation (FM) Telephony]

  5. ‘19 KHz’ using Emission Designator ‘16K0G3E’ [Phase Modulation (PM) Telephony]

3. Don't interrupt an ongoing 'Private Conversation', on Radiotelephony (Voice) or Radiotelegraphy (Continous Wave = CW) unless you have requested permission to join.

  1. If you are not a part of the conversation between the individuals currently using the frequency and would like to join, give your “call sign” between their transmissions and wait to be recognized.

  2. If the operators using the frequency recognize your transmission, it doesn’t mean that they have invited to join the conversation, it only means that they have heard you and recognized your transmission. Don't just start talking, be courteous and request permission to join the private conversation.

  3. Interrupting an ongoing 'Private Conversation', is extremely rude, whether you do it 'In-Person' or 'Over-The-Air by Radio Transmission'.

  4. If your are invited to join the conversation ensure your comments have something to contribute to the topic that was being discussed. It is especially rude to make a transmission and change the subject.

4. Don't interrupt an ongoing 'Private Conversation' on Radiotelephony (Voice) or Radiotelegraphy (Continous Wave = CW), with any "Unsolicited Comment" about the topic being discussed, either with a legal identified or illegal unidentified transmission.

  1. Interrupting an ongoing 'Private Conversation' with any 'Unsolicited Comment', is extremely rude, whether you do it 'In-Person' or 'Over-The-Air' by Radio transmission.

  2. If you make any 'Unsolicited Comment', either at the end of your transmission or within 10 minutes after your transmission, without identifying your Primary Station Call Sign, fits into the category of an "illegal" unidentified transmission.

5. Don't interrupt or ask to join an ongoing 'Private Conversation' on Radiotelephony (Voice) or Radiotelegraphy (Continous Wave = CW) unless you can hear the majority of the participants and the other operators can hear you.

  1. The reason you should do this is because, it is discourteous and unfair to the individuals already currently in the conversation, because they would not be able to hear your comments.

  2. The best procedure to determine whether you can hear all individuals involved, is to listen to the conversation for at least 10 minutes and write down the Call Signs of the Stations currently on frequency.

6.Don't use the words "break" or “contact” when wanting to join an ongoing 'Private Conversation' on Radiotelephony (Voice).

  1. If you are not a part of the conversation between the individuals currently using the frequency and would like to join, give your “call sign” between their transmissions and wait to be recognized.

  2. Don't use the words "break", which when used as a verb means, “interrupt”, it does not mean, “I want to join the conversation".

  3. Don't use the word “contact”, which when used as a verb means “communicate with”, it does not mean, “I want to join the conversation".

  4. If however you have an "Emergency" or other "Urgent" situation, use the words "break-break" to "interrupt".

7. Don't use Radiotelegraphy (Continuous Wave = CW) 'Q-Signals' such as QRT, QRZ, QSL, QSY, QTH and 'Numbers' such as 73 or 88 using Radiotelephony (Voice) Communications.

  1. Use normal 'Plain Language Words' or Radiotelephone 'Prowords'.

    1. 'Q-Signals' and 'Numerical' abbreviations were developed for reasons of 'brevity' and are appropriate using the International Morse Code in Telegraphy 'On and Off' Keying Carrier Wave (CW) Data operations.

    2. They were not developed and are not appropriate for use when the mode of operation is on Telephony (Voice) operations using Dual Side Band Full Carrier - Amplitude Modulation (DSBFC-AM), Single Side Band Suppressed Carrier - Amplitude Modulation (SSBSC-AM), or both forms of Angle Modulation [Frequency Modulation (FM) and Phase Modulation (PM)].

  2. Some examples are listed below, however all 'Q-Signals' and 'Numerical' abbreviations are not appropriate in voice modes.

  3. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, “QRT?" in interrogative form which means: "Shall I stop sending?".

  4. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, "QRT” in declarative form which means: "Stop sending."

  5. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, “QRZ?" in interrogative form which means: "Who is calling me?".

  6. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, "QRZ” in declarative form which means: "You are being called by ___."

  7. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, “QSL?” in interrogative form which means: "I acknowledge receipt".

  8. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, "QSL" in declarative form which means: "Can you acknowledge receipt?".

  9. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, “QSY?” in interrogative form which means: "Shall I change to another frequency?".

  10. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, "QSY" in declarative form which means: "Change to another frequency."

  11. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, “QTH?” in interrogative form which means: "What is your location?".

  12. Don’t say by voice, the CW Q-Signal, "QTH" in declarative form which means: "My location is ___."

  13. Don’t say by voice, the CW Number Code, “73” in declarative form which means: “Best Regards”.

  14. Don’t say by voice, the CW Number Code, "88" in declarative form which means: "Hugs and Kisses".

8. Don't 'Tune and Load' any Transmitter with an 'Electron Tube RF Power Amplifier (RFPA) Stage', or 'Tune and Load' any 'External Inline Electron Tube RF Power Amplifier (RFPA)' after the Transmitter, using an Active Load 'Over-The-Air'.

  1. Use a 50-Ohm 'Dummy Load' to 'Tune and Load' all Electron Tube Transmitters and External Inline RFPA, which has a "Pi" or "Pi-L" configured Output Coupling Low Pass Filter (LPF) Network.

  2. Once the Transmitter and any External Inline RFPA tuning is completed using the Dummy Load, put any External Inline RFPA in 'standby'.

  3. Use an Impedance Matching Network (IMN) placed inline after the Transmitter or after the External Inline RFPA, and tune for a match between the IMN output Impedance (Z) of 50 ohms to the 'Complex' input Impedance (Z) of the Active Antenna RF Feed Line.

  4. An IMN is also referred to as an 'Antenna Coupler', 'Antenna System Coupler', 'Antenna Tuner', 'Antenna System Tuner', 'Transmatch' or just 'Tuner'.

  5. When matching the output impedance connected to an IMN, use the lowest output power available from the Transmitter.

  6. After the appropriate IMN impedance matching is completed, increase the Transmitter output power to the desired level and turn on any External Inline RFPA and switch to the Active Load.

9. Don't knowingly interfere with an ongoing Conversation on Radiotelephony (Voice) or Radiotelegraphy (Continous Wave = CW) just because you are working a 'DX Station' or 'Operating in a Contest', especially using split frequencies. (Note: Refer to numbers 1 and 2 above)!

10. Don’t operate in any fashion that is not in keeping with Good Amateur Practice.



Course "Table of Contents" Link:

1. Click on the link below and it will list the 'Table of Contents'. (Recommend that your screen 'Zoom' level be increased to 200%)

2. Click on the 'Preface' Title and it will list the 'Contents'.  

    b. Click any 'Content' Title and it will 'open'.

3. Click on any one of the 'Section' Titles and it will list the 'Chapter' Titles.  

4. Click on any one of the 'Chapter' Titles and it will list the 'Lesson Plan' Titles.

    b. Click on any one of the 'Lesson Plan' Titles and it will 'open'.

http://RFCEC.com/RFCEC